Sunday, November 23, 2014

A Diagnosis of Illiteracy

In functional medicine, one gets to the ROOT of the disease rather than deals with symptoms. Illiteracy is epidemic. What is the CAUSE?

Surely it is not the individual psychopathology. As Dr. Hilde Mosse (M.D.) states, "An epidemic is caused by external forces, not by defects in the individual." [Let us consider that this would be equally apropos applied to the vaccine-induced brain injury epidemic, aka 'autism.']

The root cause of illiteracy:

First, the presuppositional world view that MAN IS AN ANIMAL.

Second, the belief that the State is responsible for education.

These two lies have forged the chains on our minds and made America a bloody, stupid hell.

This thought that MAN IS AN ANIMAL is the foundational tenet of the bastard science of psychology, and psychology was the foundation of progressive education. Bastard science? Yes, because it is illegitimate, and not science at all. Science is evidence. One cannot prove that the soul does not exist, yet these profligates declared, "The soul can no longer exist in the face of our present-day physiological knowledge." (Wundt, 1911)

Psychology is more than illegitimate. It is theological heresy because its prime focus is to nullify Scriptural truth that man is created with a soul; the word "soul" in Greek is /psuche/, from which we get the word psychology. Funny, isn't it ~~ psychology says it studies the soul, but its very work is to persuade believers that there is no soul.

Fido and Kitty don't have a soul; neither does Johnny. Fido and Kitty don't read; neither should Johnny. Fido and Kitty need to be trained to obey their master (good luck with Kitty), and Johnny needs to be trained to obey. Whom he obeys is the crux of the matter, isn't it?

The Classroom Becomes a Psychology Lab

Wilhelm Wundt opened a laboratory for Experimental Psychology in Leipzig, Germany, in 1879. It is fairly safe to say that without Wundt there would have been no Hitler, as his theories paved the way for the Fuehrer. Ideas have consequences, you know.

G. Stanley Hall, an American, was his star pupil. Hall said that children should be allowed to live through their simian (monkey) stage of evolution and express their "animal spirits" until around age eight. Let the child be cruel and rude, for he is not ready to be moralized. Every mother who has reared children knows the idiocy of this idea; any child left to his own "animal spirits" would not live to be eight years old. Yet, Hall became the darling of American psychologists and extended his influence to education, bringing Wundt's ideas to Johns Hopkins in Baltimore.

One of Hall's most famous students was John Dewey, who, like his mentor, set up a laboratory school at the University of Chicago. Now, what do you think happened in this experimental lab?

Dewey's goal was to discover a curriculum that would produce a different kind of American, one who eschewed independent thinking, one who hated capitalism, one who embraced the idea that the individual existed for the benefit of the collective -- or in other words, the state. This new American would not be American at all, but a socialist who embraced the ideas of another German that these psychologists adored, Karl Marx.

Dewey believed that learning to read in early years was a "perversion" that must be dealt with. His solution was to use a method of reading that was employed with deaf children who could not make a sound-symbol relationship. Words had to be memorized as whole words, instead of being decoded as individual letters. This was mentally crippling to the non-deaf child. And that was as it was intended to be.

The other tool Dewey found useful was the WORKBOOK. Endless, useless, meaningless worksheets that kept children busy and unengaged in the true work of education, studying the great minds that had gone before, learning to discern between the good and bad, and to choose the good. The workbook was in opposition to the Notebook, which was traditional pedagogy before the progressives sabotaged education.

Revealing the New Mas’sah

In the early 1800s, Massachusetts educator Horace Mann visited the German kingdom of Prussia and brought back some ideas on education, which flew in the face of American education. The Prussian model was Compulsory and Free. Let us read "free" through the eyes of truth: TAXES. A transfer of authority was necessary, because education of children had been a ministry of the CHURCH prior to Mann and the Unitarian-Universalist, heretic theology that he adhered to. In this new model, the teaching of children was henceforth to be the business of the STATE.

The Unitarians had one major problem to deal with before their ideology could be realized universally. The South was strongly Calvinist, believing that man’s chief end was “to glorify God and enjoy Him forever.” This rift in theology was actually the true cause of the Civil War, as the unseen always prefigures the seen. We know the end of the story: the entire nation got a centralized government that could force children in ALL states to attend the tax-supported and government-controlled public schools.  

A New Mas’sah.

A New Plantation.

And New Niggers.

“A nigger should know nothing but to obey his master – to do as he is told to do. Learning would spoil the best niggers in the world. Now, if you teach that nigger how to read, there would be no keeping him. It would forever unfit him to be a slave. He would at once become unmanageable, and of no value to his master.” (Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass)

The New Niggers are not kept in line with whips and beatings. The psychologists thought of everything. They knew that, like Douglass, some of the slaves would not be content in their station. They would be restless and stir with that “independent wish” that Scotland’s bard spoke of. Enter: mood stabilizers, legal drugs, to help the animals love their chains. In a double twist of cruelty, have the behavioral psychologists recommend Ritalin or Paxil or Luvox for the students who are mentally crippled, frustrated, and kept ignorant by the curriculum that they themselves invented. Of course, the drugs have side effects like suicidal ideations or tendencies to violence. When they kill themselves or their classmates, see? we told you they were animals.  

Restoration of literacy and setting the captives free requires a New Civil War. As in 1861, the enemy looks like us. He is our compatriot. He is the hopeful young teacher who has paid a king’s ransom to attend a New Plantation-funded college and be indoctrinated as a faithful overseer for New Mas’sah. He’s as much a slave as the slaves he perpetuates the system upon. He needs to be set free, too.

Unlike 1861, this war is not fought with bullets. The heart is the battleground. Do you believe that man is an animal? That the State can be trusted with authority that does not belong to it? Then kiss your chains, I cannot help you.

If, however, you see a child as the evidence of God’s presence on earth; if you believe that he has the right to know his Creator and understand his duty to Him and his fellow man; that it is our responsibility to equip him with literacy that he may be free of the tyranny of man; then I welcome you to join me as we set our hand to restoring the independent mind.  

"If I'm design'd yon lordling's slave, 
By Nature's law design'd, 
Why was an independent wish 
E'er planted in my mind? 
If not, why am I subject to 
His cruelty, or scorn? 
Or why has man the will and pow'r 
To make his fellow mourn?”

(Robert Burns, “Man Was Made to Mourn”) 

Visit Qara Academy at Facebook to learn more about how to restore literacy to American children.

Wednesday, August 6, 2014

Time to Pray

There was a time when I would have been angry at the fellow who caused my Granny Good-Food facebook profile to be closed. But I do realize the Hand of God in this. What man meant for evil, God meant for good. There's a time for everything, and I have been faithful for nearly two decades to preach the Gastronomic Gospel, being a missionary to the undernourished and overfed, rescuing those led away to death by Food Fraud and Venomous Vittles. If I haven't displaced your trust in the FDA, Monsanto, and Coca-Cola by now, it won't happen.

Now, I feel a different call on my life's work while on this earth. 

It is time to pray. Of course, it's always been time to pray, but it's time to contribute  some powerful incense to those golden bowls (Rev. 5:8). 

Daniel of old saw that Judah's time of desolation, 70 years, was coming to an end. Did he sit and wait for it to happen? No, he 'gave [his] attention to the Lord God to seek Him..." (Dan. 9:3)

America's captivity by Babylon is also coming to an end. We should be rejoicing and praising God for His mercy on this nation. As Daniel outlined the sins of his people, we could catalog America's sins in that same list in Ch. 9.  Is God judging America? Sure enough. Is that a bad thing? Only if you are counted among the wicked who merits that judgment. For the oppressed, a righteous judge is a Hero. How many of us have cried out to end the tyranny of Monsanto, Merck, IRS, CIA, FDA, TSA, DHS, and so many other thousands of their minions? Well...our Hero is not deaf, nor is He too weak to rescue us. He is going to be right on time. This is not "rapture" theology I speak of. Like Haman the Amalekite who tried to destroy our forebears, we are about to see the bastards swing on the same rope they were going to use on God's people!  Stop right here and read this before going further ~~

There are so many dreadful things to be fearful of if you look at the world without faith. But if you know your God and what He delights in (Jer. 9:23-24), you will know that His "lovingkindness, justice, and righteousness on earth" are boundless. Note those two words, "on earth". These qualities are not needed in Heaven, where there is perfection. Mercy, justice, and righteousness are needed where there is evil.

There is a video going around of a Gramma saying that it's time for a Second American Revolution. She is partly right. But it's not a time for taking up arms against the jackboots of Babylon. That would be suicide and falling into a trap of the arm of the flesh. This Granny says that we are called to a different kind of warfare. "Revolution" means revolving back to a beginning. Truly, we have spun off course and need to get back to the mindset of those who founded this nation: "The Lord is our judge; The Lord is our lawgiver, The Lord is our king -- He will save us." (Isaiah 33:22) This was America's beginning. It is the only "revolution" that will save us.

My son had a friend at work, Oz, whose mother in Georgia I spoke with some months back. We were discussing chemtrails, among other things. When I expressed some fear, she reminded me, "Those are not for us." Something clicked in my spirit ~~ you're right ~~ just like the rope of the gallows was not for us, but for Haman. Such it is with the recent fears of pestilence. That is not for us. My household has the Blood of the Lamb over it. If you are still in "Egypt", though, then the diseases of Egypt are yours. "If you will give earnest heed to the voice of the LORD your God, and do what is right in His sight, and give ear to His commandments, and keep all His statutes, I will put none of the diseases on you which I have put on the Egyptians; for I, the LORD, am your healer." (Exodus 15:26)

I will be "preparing for Babylon's fall," as Dr. Jones says. But I am not a "prepper." I can barely keep the pantry full of the week's needs, let alone for years as the doomsayers warn us. My humble double-wide is hardly a fortress bunker. I don't think I'd be able to shoot hungry neighbors (I say this with a full belly, though), and if that time comes may God give me grace to be as the widow of Zarapheth who had faith to share what she thought was her last meal. So you see, I may not be a "survivor" in the sense that the world defines it. However, I am much more than that. I am an Overcomer. Are we told to be a survivor? No. Are we told to be an Overcomer? Yes. Emphatically yes. I am in Christ, and He has won the victory; ergo, the victory is mine.

Let us not look to the dying throes of a defeated beast, but let us rejoice that we do have the victory and therefore, the blessings. Dr. Jones explains the significance of this year, 2014:

"...Earlier, from 1993-2013 we engaged in spiritual warfare to be set free from Mystery Babylon and to secure the dominion mandate from the beast systems of this world. But now we are entering a new time of Jacob’s trouble, during which time the overcomers will secure the Birthright of Joseph..."  

What is that birthright you speak of, Dr. Jones?

"...This refers to mining, agriculture, fishing, and all the things that God created for our benefit. These have been misused by the beast empires of the past, but when these are transferred to the true stewards, the saints of the Most High, the wealth of the earth will be used to establish the Kingdom on earth as it is in heaven...That, I believe, will be a prime focus in the 21 years that lie ahead. The 121st Jubilee, I believe, will then be declared in 2035, completing the second work of Christ..."

Don't know about you, but I have a lot to look forward to in these next 21 years. In 2035, I will be a ripe 80 years young. I pray fervently to Overcome the fear, doubt, panic, and anger that are now being thrust upon us with every newscast, trying to get us to doubt the victory and go running back to "Egypt" and their "horses", aka, vaccines, drugs, and sorcery. None for me, thank you.

My trust is in the Great Physician and His delicious prescriptions of creamy raw milk, free-range eggs with orange yolks, and the fatted grass-fed calf. The human heart draws upon saturated fat in times of stress; perhaps this is why our Lord said that there will come a time when men's hearts will fail them for fear. Was He speaking of the low-fat diet that deprives the adrenal glands of cholesterol that is a critical component of pregnenolone, the master substance that is the precursor of our cortico-steroidal hormones? I've said for years that the low-fat diet is from hell. Maybe I was more correct than I realized. And that word, "heart." Did you know that the word is often translated as "kidneys" or "reins"? And where is the kidney, my friend? Right there as part of the adrenal gland -- ad (to) + renal (kidney). So??? Is it possible -- 'men's adrenal glands will fail them for fear'?

We used to visit Calvary Chapel in our younger days and listen to the inimitable Pastor Chuck Smith. He always ended his sermons with Numbers 6:24-26, "The LORD bless thee and keep thee: The LORD make his face shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee: The LORD lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace." Okay, that's good. But how about this ~~ as it is translated using the Hebrew words ~~

"Yahweh (he who exists) will kneel before you presenting gifts and will guard you with a hedge of protection, Yahweh (he who exists) will illuminate the wholeness of his being toward you bringing order and he will provide you with love, sustenance and friendship, Yahweh (he who exists) will lift up his wholeness of being and look upon you and he will set in place all you need to be whole and complete."

Read that a few times and see if you aren't smiling and saying Hallelujah! And a smile, you know, boosts your immune system and makes you invincible to disease.

"...all you need to be whole and complete." That word, whole --
Mr. Webster (1828) tells us that "whole" is the root of the word, "heal." We also read that the word has a sense "to hold, to shut, enclose, conceal, to embrace the whole." How can we worry when "He who exists" is concealing us from raging of the enemy of our soul?

"... He who exists will provide you with love..." 
For the first 16 years of my life, I was unloved. Born out of wedlock to a woman who took her bitterness out on her bastard child, I went to bed almost nightly hearing her tell my father how she planned to "blow their brains out" or "drive them into the river." When she died at 39 years old, my first emotion was relief and a sense of safety. But the fear came back at age 29 and I had panic attacks when I tried to go to sleep. No doubt, the demons that had taken up residence in my defenseless soul were trying to gain control. As I lay there one night in mental anguish, I "saw" the words in the air in front of my eyes, "There is no power on earth greater than the Love of God." Just like that, I knew -- KNEW -- that I was loved. I threw the covers back, went to the living room and found the Bible, blew the dust off of it, and I've never left. God had plans for me, notwithstanding the circumstances of my birth.

That's my story, but I'm sure you have one, too. Whatever the "circumstances" in your life, or the "facts that affect the situation" of current events, God's love is greater than any of them. 

So, my friends, don't be surprised if you post some distressful tidbit and I add the comment,

"Yahweh (he who exists) will kneel before you presenting gifts and will guard you with a hedge of protection, Yahweh (he who exists) will illuminate the wholeness of his being toward you bringing order and he will provide you with love, sustenance and friendship, Yahweh (he who exists) will lift up his wholeness of being and look upon you and he will set in place all you need to be whole and complete."  

What if we all started doing that in faith as we meander in Social Media Land? Would the "circumstances" change? Maybe not, but we would.

Sunday, June 29, 2014

The Midwife

by Donna Voetee

Shiphrah’s blue eyes sparkled like the gem she was named for, especially after she had been at the side of a new mother as she brought life into the world. The first cry, the joy at the end of the pain, was something that her heart lived for.

Now, she knew her life was in danger, as she could not bring herself to destroy the child that her own hands delivered. Pharaoh’s orders or not, the deed could not be done, at least by her.

Today was her friend Jochebed’s second birth. Now Miriam would have a baby brother, but for how long, no one knew. If Pharaoh’s soldiers found out, there would be a price to pay, both for the family, the infant, and herself. But for now, all had gone well and mother and child were aglow.

She left the birth room and went home to her husband and daughters, whose own azure eyes reflected the dignity and strength of their mother’s.  

The clinic was full today. That chickenpox epidemic seemed to have hit all at once. Though some would have tired of the constant wheezing and sniffling of little noses, Priscilla always loved the opportunity to be with the children.

Since she had been hired as head pediatric nurse, Dr. Thomas’s patients actually had seemed to improve. Allergy visits were further apart for many, as Dr. Thomas had noted himself. Others had had to have their Ritalin reduced or even eliminated. Priscilla sure had a way with those kids.

Dr. Thomas thought himself so lucky to find her. Many nurses of her stature would have balked, because there was a trend to question the vaccines that were being given. But not Priscilla; she made sure they all got every single one on the schedule.

The last itchy child had left the office and Dr. Thomas would be leaving early tonight, too. Though it was not in her job description, she offered to stay and get ready for tomorrow’s schedule. Dr. Thomas gratefully bid her good evening and wondered what he had ever done without her.

The door locked after him, and Priscilla knew that it would be an hour before the janitorial staff arrived. She went to work quickly, opening the locked med case. With a syringe, she deftly withdrew from each small vial the entire contents and squirted it down the sink. With another, she injected saline back into the bottle and set it back on the shelf. No child’s life would be destroyed by her hands, not even if those shots were mandatory.

Her sapphire eyes twinkled with yet another day’s job well done.  

Monday, June 2, 2014


by Alex Constantine 
Reprinted by permission
"I recognized my two selves: a crusading idealist
and a cold, granitic believer in the law of the jungle.
Edgar Monsanto Queeny, Monsanto chairman, 1943-63,
"The Spirit of Enterprise", 1934." 

The FDA is ever mindful to refer to aspartame, widely known as NutraSweet, as a "food additive"-never a "drug." A "drug" on the label of a Diet Coke might discourage the consumer. And because aspartame is classified a food additive, adverse reactions are not reported to a federal agency, nor is continued safety monitoring required by law.1 NutraSweet is a non-nutritive sweetener. The brand name is misnomer. Try Non-NutraSweet.

Food additives seldom cause brain lesions, headaches, mood alterations, skin polyps, blindness, brain tumors, insomnia and depression, or erode intelligence and short-term memory. Aspartame, according to some of the most capable scientists in the country, does. In 1991 the National Institutes of Health, a branch of the Department of Health and Human Services, published a bibliography, *Adverse Effects of Aspartame*, listing not less than 167 reasons to avoid it.2

Aspartame is an rDNA derivative, a combination of two amino acids (long supplied by a pair of Maryland biotechnology firms: Genex Corp. of Rockville and Purification Engineering in Baltimore.)3 The Pentagon once listed it in an inventory of prospective biochemical warfare weapons submitted to Congress.4 But instead of poisoning enemy populations, the "food additive" is currently marketed as a sweetening agent in some 1200 food products.

In light of the chemo-warfare implications, the pasts of G.D. Searle and aspartame are ominous. Established in 1888 on the north side of Chicago, G.D. Searle has long been a fixture of the medical establishment. The company manufactures everything from prescription drugs to nuclear imaging optical equipment.5

Directors of G.D. Searle include such geopolitical heavy-hitters as Andre M. de Staercke, Reagan's ambassador to Belgium and Reuben Richards, an executive vice president at Citibank. Also Arthur Wood, the retired CEO of Sears, Roebuck & C disgorged by the clan of General Robert E. Wood, wartime chairman of the America First Committee.6 America Firsters, organized by native Nazis cloaked as isolationists, were quietly financed by the likes of Sullivan & Cromwell's Allen Dulles and Edwin Webster of Kidder, Peabody.7

Until the acquisition by Monsanto in 1985, the firm's chairman was William L. Searle, a Harvard graduate, Naval reservist and-a grim irony in view of aspartame's adverse effects-an officer in the Army Chemical Corps in the early 1950s, when the same division tested LSD on groups of human subjects in concert with the CIA.8 The chief of the Chemical Warfare Division at this time was Dr. Laurence Laird Layton, whose son Larry was convicted for the murder of Congressman Leo Ryan at Jonestown ("Come to the pavilion! What a legacy! "). Jonestown, of course, bore a remarkable likeness to a concentration camp, and kept a full store of pharmaceutical drugs. (The Jonestown pharmacy was stocked with a variety of behavior control drugs: qualudes, valium, morphine, demerol and 11,000 doses of thorazine-a better supply, in fact, than the Guyanese government's own, not to mention a surfeit of cyanide.9)

Dr. Layton was married to the daughter of Hugo Phillip, a German banker and stockbroker representing the likes of Siemens & Halske, the makers of cyanide for the Final Solution, and I.G. Farben, the manufacturer of a lethal nerve gas put to the same purpose.10 Dr. Layton,a Quaker, developed a form of purified uranium used to set off the Manhattan Project's first self-sustaining chain reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942 by his wife's German-born Uncle, Dr. James Franck. At Dugway Proving Ground in Utah, Dr. Layton concentrated his efforts, as did I.G. Farben, on the development of nerve gasses.11

Dr. Layton later defended his participation in the Army's chemical warfare section: "You can blow people to bits with bombs, you can shoot them with shells, you can atomize them with atomic bombs, but the same people think there's something terrible about poisoning the air and letting people breath it. Anything having to do with gas warfare, chemical warfare, has this taint of horror on it, even if you only make people vomit."12

Nazis and chemical warfare are recurring themes in the aspartame story. Currently, the chief patent holder of the sweetener is the Monsanto Co., based in St. Louis. In 1967, Monsanto entered into a joint venture with I.G. Farbenfabriken, the aforementioned financial core of the Hitler regime and the key supplier of poison gas to the Nazi racial extermination program. After the Holocaust, the German chemical firm joined with American counterparts in the development of chemical warfare agents and founded the "Chemagrow Corporation" in Kansas City, Missouri, a front that employed German and American specialists on behalf of the U.S. Army Chemical Corps.13

Dr. Otto Bayer, I.G.'s research director, had a binding relationship with Monsanto chemists.14 In the post-war period, Dr. Bayer developed and tested chemical warfare agents with Dr. Gerhard Schrader, the Nazi concocter of Tabun, the preferred nerve gas of the SS. Schrader was also an organophosphate pioneer, and tested the poison on populated areas of West Germany under the guise of killing insects.15 Schrader's experiments reek suspiciously of the ongoing aerial application of malathion-developed by Dr. Schrader, a recruit of the U.S. Chemical Warfare Service when Germany surrendered-in present-day Southern Califonia.16

Another bridge to I.G. Farben was Monsanto's acquisition of American Viscose, long owned by the England's Courtauld family. As early as 1928, the U.S. Commerce Department issued a report critical of the Courtauld's ties to I.G. Farben and the Nazi party.17 Incredibly, George Courtauld was handed an appointment as director of personnel for England's Special Operations Executive, the wartime intelligence service, in 1940.18 A year later, with the exhaustion of British military financial reserves, American Viscose, worth $120 million was put on the block in New York. The desperate British treasury received less than half that amount from the sale, brokered by Siegmund Warburg, among others. 19 Monsanto acquired the company in 1949.20

The Nazi connection to Monsanto crops up again on the board of directors with John Reed, a former crony of "Putzi" Hanfstangl, a Harvard-bred emigre to Germany who talked Hitler out of committing suicide in 1924 and contributed to the financing of *Mein Kampf*. 21 Reed is also chairman of Citibank and long a confederate of the CIA. According to a lawsuit filed by San Francisco attorney Melvin Belli, Reed was an instigator, with Ronald Reagan, James Baker and Margaret Thatcher, of the "Purple Ink Document," a plan to finance CIA covert operations with wartime Japanese gold stolen from a buried Philippine hoard.22

Other covert military connections to Monsanto include Dr. Charles Allen Thomas, chairman of the Monsanto Board, 1965[?]. Dr. Thomas directed a group of scientists during WW Il in the refinement of plutonium for use in the atomic bomb. In the postwar period Monsanto operated Tennessee's Oak Ridge National Laboratories for the Manhattan Project.23 (Manhattan gestated with the Oak Ridge Institute for Nuclear Studies, where Lethal doses of radiation were tested on 200 unwary cancer patients, turning them into "nuclear calibration devices" gratis the AEC and NASA, until 1974. 24) Nazi scientists and a 7,000 ton stockpile of uranium were delivered to the Project by its security and counter-intelligence director, Col. Boris Pash, a G2 designate to the CIA's Bloodstone program-and the *eminence grise* of PB/7, a clandestine Nazi unit that, according to State Department records, conducted a regimen of political assassinations and kidnappings in Europe and the Eastern bloc.25 

Monsanto Director William Ruckelshaus was an acting director of the FBI under Richard Nixon, a period in the Bureau s history marred by COINTELPRO outrages, including assassinations. Nixon subsequently appointed Ruckelshaus to the position of EPA director, a nagging irony given his ties to industry (Browning Ferris and Cummins Engine Co.). CIA counterintelligentsia on the Monsanto board include Stansfield Turner, a former Director of Central Intelligence, and Earle H. Harbison, an Agency information specialist for nineteen years.

Harbison is also a director of Merrill Lynch, and thus raises the spectre of CIA drug dealing. ln 1984 President Ronald Reagan's Commission on Organized Crime concluded that Merrill Lynch employed couriers "observed transferring enormous amounts of cash through investment houses and banks in New York City to Italy and Switzerland. Tens of millions of dollars in heroin sales in this country were transferred over seas." Merrill Lynch invested the drug proceeds in the New bullion market before making the offshore transfers. 26

As might be expected in view of Monsanto's Nazi, chemical w are and CIA ties, NutraSweet is a can of worms unprecedented in the American food industry. The history of the product is laden with flawed and fabricated research findings and, when necessary to further the product along, blatant lies-the basis of FDA approval and the incredulity of independent medical researchers.

Senator Metzenbaum described the FDA as "the handmaiden'' of the drug industry in 1985, but she comports under all regimes. In the Clinton administration for example, Mike Taylor was graced with the position of deputy director of the FDA. Taylor is a cousin of Tipper Gore, Vice President Albert Gore's wife, and once an outside counsel to Monsanto. (Gore voted with Senate conservatives in 1985 against aspartame labelling.)

Under the tutelage of the Clinton administration, one Chicago reporter quipped, the FDA strictly enforces one "unwritten" violation of law-failure to bribe.

Granitic Believers

G.D. Searle, the pharmaceutical firm that introduced NutraSweet, worked symbiotically with federal and congressional officials, bribed investigators when violations of law were exposed, *anything* to move aspartame to market. As far back as 1969, an internal Searle "strategy memo" concluded the company must obtain FDA approval to outpace firms competing for the artificial sweetener market. Another memo in December 1970 urged that FDA officials were to be "brought into a subconscious spirit of participation" with Searle.27 To that end, with enormous profits at stake, the pharmaceutical house set out on a long struggle to transform the Pentagon's biochemical warfare agent into "the taste Mother Nature intended.

The official story is that aspartame was discovered in 1966 by a scientist developing an ulcer drug (not a "food additive"). Supposedly he discovered, upon carelessly licking his fingers that they tasted sweet. Thus was the chemicals industry blessed with a successor to saccharine, the coal-tar derivative that foundered eight years later under the pressure of cancer concerns.

Aspartame found early opposition in consumer attorney James Turner, author of *The Chemical Feast* and a former Nader's Raider. At his own expense, Turner fought approval for ten years, basing his argument on aspartame's potential side effects, particularly on children. His concern was shared by Dr. John Olney, Professor of neuropathology and psychiatry at Washington School of Medicine in St. Louis. Dr. Olney found that aspartame, combined with MSG seasoning, increased the odds of brain damage in children.

Other studies have found that children are especially vulnerable to its toxic effects, a measure of the relation between consumption and body weight. The FDA determined in 1981, when the sweetener was approved, that the maximum projected intake of Aspartame is 50 milligrams a day per kilogram of body weight. A child of 66 pounds would consume about 23 milligrams by imbibing four cans of Diet Coke. The child might also conceivably down an aspartame-flavored snack or two, nearing the FDA's projected maximum daily intake.29 Dr. William Partridge, a professor of neuroendocrine regulation at MIT, told *Common Cause* in August 1984 that it wouldn't be surprising if a child-"confronted with aspartame contained in iced tea chocolate milk, milk shakes, chocolate pudding pie, Jello, ice cream and numerous other products" -consumed 50 milligrams per kilogram in a day.

Internally, aspartame breaks down into its constituent amino acids and methanol, which degrades into formaldehyde. The FDA announced in 1984 that "no evidence" has been found to establish that the methanol byproduct reaches toxic levels, claiming that "many fruit juices contain higher levels of the natural compound."30 But the _Medical World News_ had already reported in 1978 that the methanol content of aspartame is 1,000 times greater than most foods under FDA control.31

NutraSweet, the "good stuff" of sentimental adverts, is a truly insidious product. According to independent trials, aspartame intake is shown by animal studies to alter brain chemicals affecting behavior. Aspartame's effects on the brain led Richard Wurtman, an MIT neuroscientist, to the discovery, as recorded in _The New England Journal of Medicine_ (No. 309, 1983), that the sweetener defeats its purpose as a diet aid, since high doses may instill a craving for calorie-laden carbohydrates. One of his pilot studies found that the NutraSweet-carbohydrate combination increases the "sweetener's effect on brain composition." Searle officials denigrated Wurtman 's findings, but the American Cancer Society has since confirmed the irony-after tracking 80,000 women for six years-that "among women who gained weight, artificial sweetener users gained more than those who didn't use the products," as reported in _Medical Self-Care_ (387). (Since his battle with G.D. Searle, Wurtman founded Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., the producer of a sports drink that enhances athletic performance, and a weight loss drug marketed in over 40 countries. Wurtman's share of the company, established in 1989, was worth $10 million by 1992. 32

Even more daunting are the findings of Dr. Paul Spiers, a neuropsychologist at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital, that aspartame use can depress intelligence. For this reason, he selected experimental subjects with a history of consuming it but unaware that they might be suffering ill effects. The subjects were given NutraSweet in capsules of the FDA's allowable limit. Spiers was alarmed to discover that they developed "cognitive deficits.'' One of the tests required recall of square patterns and alphabetical sequences, becoming increasingly more difficult. The test is challenging, but most people improve as they learn how it is done. The aspartame users, however, did not improve.
"Some frankly showed a reverse pattern," said Spiers."33

Aspartame has been shown to erode short-term memory. At the May, 1985 hearings on NutraSweet, Louisiana Senator Russell Long related a bizarre anecdote: SENATOR LONG: I have received a letter recently from a person who is well known to me and whose word is impeccable, as far as I am concerned. This person told me that she had been dieting and she had been using diet drinks with aspartame in it. She said she found her memory was going. She seemed to be completely losing her memory. When she would meet people whom she knew intimately, she could not recall what their name was, or even who they were. She could not recall a good bit of that which was going on about her to the extent that she was afraid she was losing her mind. . . In due course, someone suggested that it might be this NutraSweet, so she stopped using it and her memory came back and her mind was restored. Senator Howard Metzenbaum replied that he had received "a number of letters from doctors reporting similar developments. . . There have been hundreds of incidents of people who have suffered loss of memory, headaches, dizziness, and other neurological symptoms which they feel are related to aspartame."34 Senator Orrin Hatch, a hidebound archconservative and NutraSweet advocate, downplayed criticism of the sugar substitute. "Some people have lost their memory after drinking a variety of things," he argued. ''The bottom line is this: The studies supporting aspartame's approval have been examined and reexamined. More than enough sound, valid studies exist to demonstrate aspartame's safety."

Hatch of Utah, reports the _Wall Street Journal_, has "given his strong support of the pharmaceutical industries."35 So have the "Hatchlings." David Kessler, FDA Commissioner under presidents Bush and Clinton, was once an aide to Orrin Hatch. Hatch's former campaign manager and aide, C. McClain Haddow, was sentenced to prison for conflict-of-interest charges arising from his work as a Reagan administration health official. And Thomas Parry, Hatch's former chief of staff, has carved a sumptuous life for himself as a Republican fund-raiser and lobbyist with clients in the pharmaceutical industry. All told, Parry represents 30 clients, including Eli Lilly, Warner-Lambert, and Johnson & Johnson, not to mention ranking defense firms and the Bahamas government. Parry's pharmaceutical clients have enriched Senator Hatch's campaign coffers, and in turn Hatch lavishes his attentions on them. 

By the time Orrin Hatch was stumping for NutraSweet in the U.S. Senate, the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta had received 600 letters complaining of NutraSweet's adverse effects. The National Soft Drink Association (NSDA) had them too. "There have been hundreds of reports from around the country suggesting a possible relationship between their consumption of NutraSweet and subsequent symptoms including headaches, aberrational behavior, slurred speech, etc." FDA Commissioner Arthur Hull Hayes, appointed by Ronald Reagan in April, 1981 (moving the _New York Times_ to observe that "some industry officials consider Dr. Hayes more sympathetic to their viewpoints than past holders of the office"), considered such complaints "anecdotal.''

Of course, like scores of other conservatives roaming the executive branch in the 1980s, the ethics of Arthur Hull Hayes were entirely malleable-not only did he approve a product based on studies that were "scientifically lacking in design and execution," according to a report issued by _Science Times_ in February 1985, but upon leaving the FDA he took the post of senior medical consultant for Burson-Marsteller, the public relations firm retained by G.D. Searle.37

Burson-Marsteller, a huge public relations conglomerate, swelled in the 1980s by leveraging smaller competitors -including Black, Manafort, Stone & Kelley, a lobbying firm best known for influence peddling along the Beltway-presently outsizing even the Hill & Knowlton empire. Typical in the aspartame story are Burson-Marsteller's links to the intelligence community and rightwing operatives of the GOP. Thomas Devereaux Bell, Jr., an executive officer of the firm, is the former chairman of the Center for naval Analysis in Alexandria, Virginia. Bell was also the executive director of Ronald Reagan's Inaugural Ball Committee (in which capacity he ushered in the likes of Licio Gelli, head of P2, the notorious Italian secret society). Bell's career in Washington began in 1971 as a deputy director of Richard Nixon's Committee to ReElect the President. He went on to serve as an administrative aide to Senator William Brock and the Reagan transition team.38

At the FDA, Hayes used aspartame as a political statement that the Reagan administration was embarking on a grand voyage of conservative "regulatory reform," sluicing through treasonous liberal constraints on "free enterprise." Despite what one FDA scientist described as 'very serious' questions concerning pivotal brain tumor tests, Hayes eagerly approved aspartame for use in dry foods in July 1981.39 Three FDA scientists advised against the approval of aspartame, citing G.D. Searle's own brain tumor tests, because there was no proof that "aspartame is safe for use as a food additive under its intended conditions of use. "40

Hayes has since declined to answer any questions about his decision, which ignored the recommendations of the FDA's own board of inquiry. He relied instead on a study conducted by Japan's Ajinomoto, Inc.-a licensee of G.D. Searle. Hayes acknowledged in his 1981 decision that he had only consulted a preliminary report of the Japanese evaluation, and only *skimmed* it. More serious, Hayes violated federal law by basing approval on the test, as it had not been reviewed by the FDA board.41 

Who is Arthur Hull Hayes? He was no disinterested bureaucrat. True to the biochemical theme of the aspartame story, Dr. Hayes served in the Army Medical Corps in the 1960s. According to the _Washington Post_, Hayes was assigned to Edgewood Arsenal at Fort Detrick, Maryland, the Army's chemical warfare base of operations, "one of a number of doctors who conducted drug tests for the Army on volunteers . . . to determine the effect of a mind-disorienting drug called CAR 301,060." According to a declassified 1976 report prepared by the Army Inspector General, Hayes had planned a research study to develop the mind-altering CAR 301,060 as a *crowd control agent.* In 1972, Hayes left Edgewood Arsenal, and a new plan for the experiments was drawn up by Edgewood physicians. The 1976 report notes that similar tests had been conducted before Hayes took charge. 42

Also at the center of the effort to land FDA approval of NutraSweet stood Donald Rumsfeld - "Rummy" to his friends - chairman of G.D. Searle upon leaving the Ford administration in 1977. Rumsfeld, the product of a wealthy Chicago suburb, was a Princeton graduate and a Navy pilot during the Korean conflict. He entered politics as a Congressional House aide attending night classes at Georgetown University Law School, which is closely aligned with the CIA.43

Rumsfeld campaigned ambitiously for Richard Nixon, who drafted him to direct the Office of Equal Opportunity on May 26, 1969. He quickly established an office to spy on his employees in a holy crusade to flush out "revolutionaries" said to be granting federal funds to politically subversive organizations-a throwback to McCarthy's tantrums.44 Rumsfeld also figured in Nixon's notorious Power Control Group, spearheaded by Charles Colson and John Ehrlichman.45 Gerald Ford named Rumsfeld executive chief of staff upon the resignation of Al Haig. In 1986 he was named chairman of the Institute for Contemporary Studies, a neoconservative "think tank" (read: propaganda mill) established in 1972 by Edwin Meese and Caspar Weinberger. ICS has sponsored such opinion-shaping projects as a study of expansions in "entitlement programs" and their erosive effects on the economy, and a book on the uses of coercion by Communist regimes.46 Rumsfeld, at 43, became the county's youngest secretary of defense. For many years he has been a vocal proponent of chemical weapons.47 He is chairman of the Rand Corp.48 In 1988, he dropped a presidential bid, and was named a v.p. of Westmark Systems, led by past NSA Director Bobby Ray Inman. Rumsfeld was one of Westmark's founding directors, sharing the board with Joseph Amato, a former vice president at TRW (and a colleague of Inman's at the National Security Agency), and Dale Frey, chairman of the General Electric Investment Corp.49

Rumsfeld, a veteran political operative, was an adept at the vulgar art of public relations. He was recruited by G.D. Searle because he had "a Boy Scout image," according to one company official.50 A house politician was precisely what Searle needed to compensate for the damage done by independent researchers concerned about the toxic effects of aspartame. In March 1976, an FDA task force brought into question *all* of the company's testing procedures between 1967 and 1975. The task force described "serious deficiencies in Searle's operations and practices which undermine the basis for reliance on Searle's integrity." The final report of the FDA task force noted faulty and fraudulent product testing, knowingly misrepresented findings, and instances of "irrelevant or unproductive animal research where experiments have been poorly conceived, carelessly executed or inaccurately analyzed."51

Richard Merrill, the FDA's chief counsel, petitioned Samuel K. Skinner U.S. Attorney for the northern district of Illinois, for a grand jury investigation of Searle's "willful and knowing failure" to submit required test reports, and for "concealing material facts and making false statements" in reports on aspartame submitted to the agency.52 Yet industry analysts, interviewed by the _Wall Street Journal_ six months after Rumsfeld's appointment as chairman, noted a rapid turnabout in Searle's fortunes as a result of his direction.53

Searle denies that Chairman Rumsfeld ever had any contact with the FDA, or the Carter and Reagan administrations, to lobby for aspartame.54 But the _Wall Street Journal_ article reported in 1977 that Rumsfeld "keenly understands the importance of a public image. So he has been mending fences with the FDA by personally asking top agency officials what Searle should do to straighten out its reputation." Westley M. Dixon, Searle's vice chairman, told the _Journal_ that without Rumsfeld "we wouldn't have gotten approval for Norpace," a drug investigated by the FDA in 1975.55 

The grand jury investigation of Searle disintegrated in January, 1977 when the FDA formally requested that Samuel Skinner, U.S. attorney and a protege of Illinois Governor James Thompson, investigate the firm for falsifying and withholding aspartame test data. A month later, Skinner met with attorneys from Searle's Chicago law firm, Sidley & Austin. Jimmy Carter ascended to The presidency a few weeks later. He announced that Skinner would not be asked to remain in office, but the outgoing Republican wasn't found wanting for employment. He informed reporters that he had already begun "preliminary discussions" with Sidley & Austin.56

G.D. Searle and Sidley & Austin are Siamese Twins. Edwin Austin, a senior partner in the law firm, was appointed to the Illinois Supreme Court in 1969. The Searle family drew upon his services extensively, and he taught Sunday school in Wilmette, a Chicago suburb, as did Dr. Claude Howard Searle, whose father cofounded the pharmaceutical house.

The firm is grafted to the beating heart of the Republican party. Morris Leibman of Sidley & Austin was for many years chairman of the American Bar Association's "Standing Committee on Law and National Security," a position that won him Reagan's Medal of Freedom in 1981.57

John E. Robson, head of Sidley & Austin's Washington office, was appointed executive vice-president of Searle & Co. in 1977, the same year Skinner was named a partner in the law firm. Robson, too, was active in Republican politics. He was the first General Counsel of the Department of Transportation, and at the behest of Gerald Ford in 1975, chairman of the Civil Aeronautics Board.58 He moved on to Searle, and stayed with the company until it was bought outright by Monsanto in 1985. Howard Trienens, a law clerk to the late chief Justice Vinson in the early 1950s, was a G.D. Searle director and worked for Sidley & Austin since 1949.59 Archconservative California Governor George Deukmejian joined Sidley & Austin's Los Angeles branch upon leaving office in 1991, and is reportedly making a "very comfortable" living. He has a keen "sense" for bringing in corporate clients, a partner in the firm told the Los Angeles Times, many of them past contributors to his campaign fund. Deukmejian's business connections have given him a reputation as a Sidley & Austin "rainmaker," but the L.A. City Council has questioned his ethics in promoting a contract with Sumitomo Corp. on a metropolitan railway project.60 Searle aside, Sidley & Austin has served some of the most notorious special interests in the country. The firm lobbied overtime, for instance, on behalf of Charles Keating's Lincoln Savings & Loan, and provided counsel on tax issues and dealing with federal authorities. The firm assisted Keating when Lincoln was foundering, and curried political favor to keep the S&L operating despite massive debts. As a result, the firm was forced to settle with Lincoln depositors in 1991, agreeing to cover an excess of $40 million in claims.6l Sidley & Austin also represented the AMA when a group of drugstore chains sued seven drug makers-including Searle-for price fixing and antitrust violations. The lawsuit, filed in October 1993, amounts to billions of dollars in compensation.62 

Skinner recused himself from the Searle prosecution four months before leaving office-- asking, in a memo to subordinates, that the matter be kept "confidential to avoid any undo embarrassment"-a stall that nearly allowed the statute of limitations to expire. William Conlon, a senior U.S. attorney, inherited the case. He eased off, citing case load pressures, and gave a deaf ear to complaints of delays from the Justice Department, which urged that a grand jury be convened to prosecute Searle for falsifying NutraSweet test data. In January, 1979, Conlon too joined Sidley & Austin.63

The 33-page letter from Merrill to Skinner charged Searle with criminal fraud in its animal test results. In 1984 Common Cause asked Dan Reidy of the U. S. attorney's office how the investigation had stalled. Reidy replied that because it was a grand jury investigation, he was "bound by law to secrecy." A Searle spokesman exploited the demise of the grand July claim that there was "no validity to the charges, that the company had been "exonerated." Philip Brodsky, an investigator for the FDA, expressed surprise that Searle hadn't been indicted. "I thought surely they would prosecute them," he said.64

Eleven years later Senator Metzenbaum issued a press release charging Skinner with stalling the criminal investigation as he prepared to decamp from office. Metzenbaum and his staff demanded an FBI investigation of Skinner's mishandling of the case. In December 1988, the conflict-of-interest bombshell blew up in the face of newly elected George Bush, who was about to appoint Skinner to the position of Transportation Secretary.65

Like most of the Machiavellians in the NutraSweet story, Samuel Knox Skinner kept company with hardright Republicans. He entered politics as a campaign volunteer for Barry Goldwater. 66 In 1975, he was appointed to Federal Prosecutor in Chicago by President Ford. Sidley & Austin promoted him to senior partner after only one year with the firm. Skinner was the director of George Bush's presidential campaign in Illinois. On occasion he was berated for his involvement with the state's Republican apparatus: In 1987, for instance, the Chicago SunTimes linked him with a clutch of lawyers close to Governor Thompson, who were awarded lucrative assignments handling the affairs of financially crippled insurance companies. Skinner was a leading light of the Illinois Fraud Prevention Commission -he targeted welfare cheats (as opposed to white-collar criminals in the drug industry)-and President Reagan's Commission on Organized Crime. In December 1991, he left Transportation to take the position of President Bush's Chief of Staff.67

"A Shocking Story" 

Had Skinner pressed on with the investigation, aspartame's manufacturer would have been forced to explain a long history of fabricated laboratory tests and slippery dealings with federal regulators, not to mention the public. Dr. Alexander Schmidt, a former FDA commissioner, said of the original Aspartame Task Force investigation: "What was discovered was reprehensible. . .incredibly sloppy science." A 1980 public board of inquiry opined that the company's testing procedures were "bizarre."68

Searle's decision to market aspartame culminated with the falsification of test results to obtain FDA approval . In November 1969, officials of the firm hired Dr. Harry Waisman, a researcher for the University of Wisconsin, to test for brain damage in rhesus monkeys. Seven monkeys were fed aspartame for periods up to one year. In the end, though, the evaluation flopped because the technicians failed to perform the intelligence tests and autopsies required to determine brain damage. When questioned about the false data by the FDA, Searle officials claimed to have had no direct control over the study. But the protocol for the study was written by a Searle pathologist *after* it had begun. And, according to Dr. Gross, "Frequent high-level communications took place between Searle executives and Dr. Waisman prior to and during the study." 69

To make matters worse, Dr. Waisman died in March, 1971, in mid-study.

Searle submitted the toxicity test to the FDA on October 12, 1972. It bore Dr. Waisman's name as coauthor. Richard Merrill noted: "Dr. Waisman was the expert in the field and his name would carry great weight," but complained to Skinner that Searle took "great literary license" in drafting the report, "which *covers up* the admitted inadequacy of the design, control and documentation of this study." 70 
Searle submitted some 150 test reports, yet Dr. Martha Freeman of the FDA Bureau of Drugs noted in a 1973 memo, "the information provided is inadequate to permit an evaluation of the potential toxicity of aspartame." 71 The FDA task force set up by Dr. Schmidt in 1975 reviewed 25 studies on seven products manufactured by G.D. Searle, a total of 500 pages and 15,000 exhibits.72 Searle was held to be the author of "reports that the FDA believes contain false information" and "concealed facts resulting from having drafted Dr. Waisman's 'pilot' monkey study so that it would *appear* to be a valid, thorough scientific study," and not a forgery.

In 1975 Searle submitted a battery of cancer test results entitled "The Willigan Report, which contained a statistical table that excluded four malignant mammary tumors detected by Dr. Willigan and incorporated in his data. The malignancies were made to appear benign. Searle dismissed the misrepresentation as a computer "programming error" undetected by supervising statisticians. Dr. Gross interviewed all concerned with the tests. He concluded in a statement to Metzenbaum's committee in August, 1985, that "to accept the Searle explanation is to believe that the unfavorable mammary malignancy data were innocently omitted from the summary table four separate times by three different individuals."74

The Waisman and Willigan Reports were prepared by Searle Labs, as were 88% of the safety evaluations conducted by 1981.75 They are typical of the shoddy documentation upon which FDA Commissioner Hayes based his decision that aspartame does not constitute a public health risk. Although two members of the 1975 task force considered the tests to be criminal frauds, Hayes and Searle declared the results valid. In an appeal to Hayes' decision, James Turner said: "The entire argument that since the studies are no longer considered fraudulent *by FDA* they are therefore scientifically valid is an example of a rhetorical shell game that, if successful, can only bring discredit and ridicule on the FDA."76

Dr. Gross, the chief scientist on the FDA task force, told the CBS *Nightly News* staff in January, 1984, that Searle made "*deliberate* decisions" to cloak the toxic effects of aspartame. "They took great pains to camouflage these shortcomings of the study,'' Gross said, "as I say, filter and just present to the FDA what they wished the FDA to know. And they did other *terrible* things. For instance, animals would develop tumors while they were under study-well, G.D. Searle would *remove these tumors from the animals*," surgically masking the cancerous effects of aspartame.77 Yet one 1986 _New England Journal of Medicine_ article claimed that noncompulsive aspartame intake has "no sinister effects."

Dr. Woodrow Monte told CBS, "Every time a truly impartial team of scientists have looked at NutraSweet, it has been turned down." Dr. Monte, director of the nutrition laboratory at Arizona State University, held that these studies "show *extreme* dangers over the long term."78 

Dr. Monte was rewarded for his comments by a fusillade from the press. On February 23, Dan Dorfman, a business news reporter for WCBS in New York, broke a story that several CBS employees had invested in options on NutraSweet that pay off if the stock price drops.79 Dr. Monte and his attorney had purchased the options as well. It emerged that the CBS staffers had purchased the options on the advice of stock market newsletters printed prior to the nightly news report. The investments were not illegal, nor did they reap a profit. Searle's stock was not affected by the publicity, and the investors took a loss.

Nevertheless, the _Wall Street Journal_ ran a front-page story condemning the "inside trading." Reed Irvine's Accuracy in Media picked up the cudgel against Dr. Monte and the CBS employees as if they'd committed a shocking Wall Street swindle.80 Accuracy in Media, formed in 1969, is an intelligence operation abetted by the CIA. The rabidly right-wing organization was co-founded by Bernard Yoh, a counter-insurgency adviser under the notorious Edward Landsdale in Vietnam, and a fount of CIA funds to military intelligence units in the Delta region. Board member Elbridge Durbrow was once a foreign service "diplomat," and advised commanders of Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama. Another AIM board member, Frank Trager, has conducted research for the Pentagon and CIA, and churns out pamphlets on international business and intelligence operations. Major financial contributors to AIM include Richard Nixon, "Bebe" Rebozo, Edward Scripps, the wretched Dr. Edward Teller and former Treasury Secretary William E. Simon.81
Accuracy in Media is a strident advocate of the chemical industry, which provides it with generous funding. The media "watchdog" has long waged a campaign on behalf of dioxin, denouncing the "Agent Orange scare" as the creation of delirious, anti-business liberals. Among the leading manufacturers of Agent Orange for the Vietnam war effort was Monsanto, preparing-at the very moment AIM took aim at detractors of NutraSweet[TM]- to buy G.D. Searle.

The Good Stuff 

Dr. Monte cautioned in 1987 that he didn't want to sound like a "conspiracy theory" hound, but the aspartame chronology clarifies its commercial emergence. The FDA Board of Inquiry advised against the sweetener on September 30, 1980. On January21, 1981-the day after Reagan's inauguration-Searle submitted "ten new studies." Dr. Monte was skeptical. "It is impossib1e that they could have conducted those studies in four months," he said. "Obviously they'd previously done those studies but hadn't officially submitted them, although much of the information in those studies was informally presented to the board of inquiry." With the "new tests" in hand, Hayes acted as though critical, overriding evi dence had proven the safety of aspartame.82

James Turner, representing thc Community Nutrition Institute in Washington, D.C., said that Arthur Hull Hayes, to arrive at his decision that aspartame is safe, firewalked apath "through a mass of scientific mismanagement, improper procedures, wrong conclusions and general scientific inexactness." Two FDA officials declared in 1985 that Hayes was determined to clear all obstacles to NutraSweet approval. One FDA bureaucrat reported that "people at the top" were closed to questions concerning the quality of the tests submitted by Searle.83

In July, 1984 a broad investigation of NutraSweet's adverse effects was conducted by the FDA and the Centers for Disease Control. Federal health officials said at the outset that they believed no harm would emerge from the data to indict aspartame. Robert McQuate, Ph.D., science director of the National Soft Drink Association, predicted with mystical confidence that the study would "provide further evidence that aspartame is a safe ingredient."84
Dr. McQuate didn't fret the goring of his biochemical ox. In November the CDC announced that no "serious, widespread" side effects had been found.85 It was "unlikely," said CDC officials, that "complainers" could establish a link between NutraSweet and their maladies-the same bromide once tossed to victims of radiation experiments. The reported side-effects of aspartame fell into two distinct categories: central nervous system (65%) and gastrointestinal disorders (24%).86 Yet the CDC claimed erroneously that no consistent reaction pattern had been found. 87 Robert Shapiro, then president of Nutrasweet, used the occasion to enthuse that the survey "clearly established the safety" of the sugar substitute.88 Nevertheless, the CDC recommended a new set of studies because aspartame users continued to complain of ill effects.

Based on the ersatz assurances of the CDC report, PepsiCo announced that it would drop saccharine and begin sweetening its diet drinks entirely with aspartame. The decision would have been approved by Wayne Calloway, then CEO of PepsiCo and director of the multinationals Citicorp, General Electric and Exxon. In 1983 soda bottlers, organized around Pepsi had petitioned the FDA for a delay in approval of NutraSweet for soft drinks until further evaluation verified its safety-interpreted by market analysts as a ploy to drive down the price of the sweetener. They soon abandoned the effort to block approval (and all health concerns they might have had). "We believe saccharine is safe," Pepsi USA President Roger Enrico lied, but "we wanted the taste improvement." PepsiCo, already drawing on a tenth of Searle's 7.5 million pound annual production of aspartame, signed an agreement with G.D. Searle to boost purchases 500 percent.89 (Like other corporate pushers of aspartame, Pepsi has long maintained ties to the intelligence community. One product of the relationship was a Pepsi plant in Vientiane, Laos with a laboratory outfitted for heroin production. Alfred McCoy, in *The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia* documents the efforts of Richard Nixon to promote the plant's construction in 1965, and the CIA's continuing subsidization of the plant. McCoy complained to Pepsi officials that the facilities were but a cover for the importation and refinement of morphine, but it continued to operate unhindered.)

Yet another report was filed by Reagan's General Accounting Office in July 1987, this one on the FDA's handling of aspartame. The GAO concluded that the agency had followed proper procedures and conducted valid studies. But the report noted that the FDA had followed guidelines for food -not drug- testing, despite the recommendation of the agency's own biologists favoring *drug* tests, which are considerably more stringent. This recommendation was overruled by FDA officials.90 

Another blemish in the study was bared by Dr. Louis Elsas, director of medical genetics at Emory University in Atlanta. "They never asked the right questions about what it does to brain function in humans," he told the _Washington Post_. Half of the scientists polled expressed reservations about the safety of NutraSweet. One-fifth reported "major concerns." Monsanto quibbled in a press release that these critics had themselves never conducted aspartame research. A score of independent scientists have. They found side effects.

Senator Metzenbaum berated Searle's flawed and fabricated tests at the August 1, 1985 Senate hearings. "The FDA," he said, "is content to have the manufacturer of aspartame, G.D. Searle, conduct these studies. How *absurd*."

He also faulted the AMA: 
The _Journal of the American Medical Association_ recently published a report on aspartame which, with some significant disclaimers, stated it was safe for most people. I wish that this report could ease my concerns. It does not. It merely restates the FDA position which relies solely on the tests conducted by G.D. Searle. As I have indicated these tests are under a cloud. In addition, the concerns raised recently by the scientists ... were not even included in the report.

In defense of the tests, executives of G.D. Searle argued that the sweetener has been approved by foreign regulatory agencies and the World Health Organization. But H.J. Roberts, an internal medicine specialist in West Palm Beach, Florida, reviewed the foreign studies and found that "the vast majority of these agencies accepted company-sponsored research without ever having done independent confirmatory studies.''91

Deficiencies in testing were aggravated by a lack of laboratory training at Searle. One of the pivotal safety studies involved fetal damage, but the FDA task force found that the medical researcher in charge was "inexperienced in conducting studies of this nature and yet given full responsibility." They were appalled to discover that his sole credential was a field study of the cottontail rabbit for the Illinois Wildlife Service, yet at Searle he'd been assigned to laboratory training and supervision. When asked about his *curriculum vitae* in fetal research, he replied that he'd once attended a seminar on the subject, and the company had provided him with a stack of reference works.92 (Yet J.D. Searle, in its 1981 Annual Report, billed itself as "a research based pharmaceutical company.")
Corporate control of NutraSweet testing continues at Monsanto, torturing the ethics of academic medicine. In August 1987 the University of Illinois, a recipient of Monsanto's largess, issued a study exonerating aspartame of causing seizures in laboratory animals. Dave Hattan, a safety regulator for the FDA, responded that the study only confirmed the need for testing on humans. At independent labs, he insisted, aspartame provoked seizures.93

Industrial support tends to contaminate test data. Dr. Elsas, in a 1988 letter to the _New England Journal of Medicine_, advocates unbiased review of clinical research. "The NutraSweet Co.," he said, "may have had an interest in protocols that would find that their product had no untoward effects." 94 Monsanto reportedly granted one NutraSweet researcher a $1.3 million honorarium.95 The same hired gun willing to manipulate lab results will have no qualms publicly defending a tainted pharmaceutical, like the diabetic specialist who objected that a Senate hearing on aspartame, which called him as a witness, might arouse groundless public anxiety.96

Victims and health activists have attempted in the courts to put a stop to the marketing of NutraSweet, to no avail. In 1985 a coalition of consumer groups were handed a ruling by the federal Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia that the FDA had followed proper procedures in approving aspartame for soft drinks. A year later the _Washington Post_ reported that the Supreme Court again refused to consider the case "despite critics' arguments that the product, sold under the brand name NutraSweet, may cause brain damage."97

Likewise, the medical establishment has thrown up an impenetrable wall to aspartame critics. Dr. Roberts, author of a brief study, "Aspartame-Associated Confusion and Memory Loss: A Possible Human Model for Early Alzheimer's Disease," found it impossible to publish the article in a peer review medical journal. This was peculiar, he thought, "considering the increasing magnitude of Alzheimer's disease, and the relevance of my observations to newer biochemical findings and avenues of research." He can "personally vouch for the *enormous* difficulty in getting published articles concerning reactions to aspartame products," a trend in censorship with "ominous overtones." The options, Dr. Roberts says, are "generally limited to 'burying' the findings in a small-circulation journal (such as the bulletin of a county medical society), reporting the results as a letter to the editor, or (unfortunately, most often) discarding the project."98

Silence surrounds the most odious conspiracies. 
1."Sweet Talk," Science and the Citizen column, _Scientific American_, July, 1987, p. 15. 
2."Adverse Effects of Aspartame-January '86 through December '90," Current Bibliography series, National Library of Medicine pamphlet, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991. 
3."Pepsi Switches Sweeteners-Aspartame Winning Diet Cola Market," _Washington Post_, November 2, 1984, p. A-1. 
4.Mae Brussell, World Watchers #842, KAZU-FM, Monterey, CA., January 25, 1988. 
5._Moody 's Industrial Manual_, 1975, p 2606 
6.G.D. Searle's 1981 _Annual Report_. Also, Arnold Foster and Benjamin R. Epstein, *Cross-Currents*, Doubleday & Co. (New York: 1956), p. 153. 
7.Nancy Lisagor and Frank Lipsius, *A Law Unto Itself: The Untold Story of the Law Firm of Sullivan & Cromwell*, William Morrow (New York: 1988), pp. 13738, 163. 
8.John Marks, *The Search for "The Manchurian Candidate ": The CIA and Mind Control*, Times Books (New York: 1979), pp.58,67 & 212. Marks writes that incapacitating "large numbers of people fell to the Army Chemical Corps, which also tested LSD and even stronger hallucinogens. The CIA concentrated on individuals." 
9.John Peer Nugent, *White Night.- The Untold Story of What Happened Before-and Beyond-Jonestown*, Rawson, Wade (New York: 1979), pp. 143, 177. 
10.Michael Meiers, *Was Jonestown a CIA Medical Experiment?A Review of the Evidence*, Mellen House (Lampeter, UK: 1988) p. 42. 
11.Ibid., p. 43. 
12.Ibid., pp. 42-43. For a sanitized account of Dr. Layton's career, see Min S. Yee and Thomas N. Layton, *In My Father 's House: The Story of the Layton Family and the Reverend Jim Jones*, Holt, Rinehart and Winston (New York, 1981). 
13.National Council of the National Front of Democratic Germany and the Committee of Anti-Fascist Resistance Fighters of the German Democratic Republic, *The Brown Book: War and Nazi Criminals in West Germany*, Verlag Zeit im Bild, 1965, pp. 33-34. 
14.Dan J. Forrestal, *Faith, Hope & $5,000: The Story of Monsanto*, Simon and Schuster (New York: 1977), p. 159. 
15.*Brown Book*, p. 34. 
16.Tom Bower, *The Paperclip Conspiracy: The Hunt for the Nazi Scientists*, Little, Brown & Co. (Boston 1987), pp. 93, 95. 
17.Howard W. Ambruster, *Treason's Peace: German Dyes and American Dupes*, Beechhurst Press (New York: 1947), p.144 
18.Nigel West, *MI6: British Secret Intelligence Service Operations, 1909-1945*, Random House (New York: 1983), p.92 
19.Jaques Attali, *A Man of Influence: The Extraordinary Career of S. G. Warburg*, Adler & Adler (Bethesda, Maryland: 1987),p. 167. 
20.Forrestal, p. 121ff. 
21.Anthony Cave Brown, *The Last Hero, Wild Bill Donovan*, Vintage (New York: 1982), pp. 210211. Also: Ernst Hanfstangl, _Unheard Witness_, J.R. Lippincott (New York: 1957) 
22."Search for the Tiger's Treasure," _Las Vegas Sun_, December 26, 1993, p.1. 
23._Moody 's Industrial Manual_, 1968, p. 4080. 
24."Radiation and the Guinea Pigs," _Guardian_, March 3, 1994, p. 3. Also see, "Nuclear Scientists Irradiated People in Secret Research," _New York Times_, December 17, 1993, p. Al. 
25.Christopher Simpson, *Blowback: America's Recruitment of Nazis and Its Effects On the Cold War*, Wiedenfeld & Nicholson (New York: 1988), pp.26, 152-53. Col. Pash, a former high school gym teacher, was an officer of the Office of Policy coordination under Frank Wisner. His unit, writes Simpson, "known as PB/7, was given a written charter that read in part that 'PB/7 will be responsible for assassinations, kidnaping, and such other functions as from time to time may be given it... by higher authority."' Pash was a member of the Russian Orthodox Church, a veteran of the Russian Civil War. Monsanto's Clinton Engineering Works in Oak Ridge became the Manhattan Project's headquarters in 1943, and was "manned almost entirely by experienced officers and agents of the CIC." See lan Sayer and Douglas Botting, *America's Secret Army: The Untold Story of the Counter intelligence Corps*, Franklin Watts (New York: 1989), pp. 71ff.,346. 
26.Robin Thomas Naylor, *Hot Money and the Politics of Debt*, Simon & Schuster (New York, 1987), p.289. 
27."Statement from Adrian Gross, Former FDA Investigator and Scientist," _Congressional Record_, August 1, 1985, p. S10835. 
28.Florence Graves, "How Safe is Your Diet Soft Drink?" _Common Cause_, July/August,1984. 
30."FDA Finding on Aspartame," _New York Times_, January 14,1984, p. 28. 
31.Article in Medical World News,1978, cited in I .N. Love "NutraSweet Isn't that Sweet," _Gentle Strength Times_, October 1987, p. 3. 
32."Dick Wurtman's Ideas Aren't So Crazy After All," _Business Week_, December 14, 1992, p. 60. 
33."A Sour View of Aspartame ," _San Francisco Chronicle_, August 25, 1987. 
34."Amendment No. 60" (debate), _Congressional Record_, May 7, l985, p. S5516. 
35."Lobbyist's Cozy Ties with Ex-Boss Sen. Hatch Include Client Referrals, Political Fund-Raising," _Wall Street Journal_, February 18, 1993. Eli Lilly contributed $17,500 to Hatch's campaign chest between 1985 and 1988. Sen. Hatch filed a of friend-of-the-court brief on behalf of Eli Lilly in a 1989 patent case. Other pharmaceutical houses enjoy his political favors. Lobbyist Thomas Parry remains a key adviser to Sen. Hatch:- "Nobody gets better care than his former chief of staff," reports the _Journal_. 
37.Jane E. Brody, "Sweetener Worries Some Scientists," _Science Times_, February 5, 1985. 
38._Who 's Who in Industry and Finance_, 97th ed., Macmillian (Wilmette, IL.) p. 583. 
39."Food and Drug Administration Food Additive Approval Process Followed for Aspartame," GAO Report B223552, June 18,1987. 
40."GAO Investigating NutraSweet Approval," UPI, reprinted in _Congressional Record_, August 1, 1985,p. S10823. 
42."Head of FDA Tested Drugs on Volunteers," _Washington Post_, June 26, 1983, p. A4. 
43.Austin H. Kiplinger, *Washington Now*, Harper & Row (New York: 1975), pp. 36-37. 
44.Daniel Guttman and Barry Willner, *The Shadow Government: The Government's Multimillion Dollar Giveaway of its Decision-Making Powers to Private Management Consultants, ''Experts, " and Think Tanks*, Pantheon, (New York:1989),p.173. 
45.Bruce Oudes, ed., *From: The President-Richard Nixon 's Secret Files*, Harper & Row (New York: 1989), p. 173. 
46.James A Smith, *The Idea Brokers: Think Tanks and the Rise of the New Policy Elite*, Free Press (New York: 1991), p.282. 
47.Sterling Seagrave, *Yellow Rain: A Journey Through The Terror of Chemical Warfare*, M. Evans and Co. (New York: 1981), pp. 258 "After a meeting with President Nixon, Representative Gerald Ford attacks politicians who criticize the Pentagon CBW efforts, saying the critics seem to favor 'unilateral disarmament."' 
48.Christopher Palmeri, "Act Three," _Forbes_, October 26, 1992, p. 88 
49."Westmark Systems Expands Board, Hires 3 New Vice Presidents," _Wall Street Journal_, February 11,1988, p.33. 
52."Hon. Samuel K. Skinner," _Congressional Record_, Congressional Printing Office, Washington, D.C., August 1, 1985, pp. S10827, S10835. 
54._Congressional Record_, August 1,1985, p. S10823. 
56."Critics Cause Bush Cabinet Search to Stumble," _Los Angeles Times_, December 22,1988. 
57.Herman Rogan, *Traditions and Challenges: The Story of Sidley & Austin*, R.R. Donelly & Sons (Chicago: 1983), p.266. 
58.*Who's Who in America*, 48th ed., 1994. 
60."Deukmejian Thrives in Private Life, Law Work," _Los Angeles Times_, January 3, 1992, p. Al. 
61."Chicago Law Firm Agrees to Pay Up to $34 Million in Lincoln S&L Case," _Los Angeles Times_, May 21, 1991, p. D5;and "Sidley & Austin RTC Said to Reach Pact," _Wall Street Journal_, October 31, 1991, p. B4. The basis of the suit was a memo written on May 10, 1988 by Margery Waxman, a partner in Sidley & Austin's Washington office, to Charles Keating. In it, she said "pressure" had been applied to M. Danny Wall, then chairman of the Home Loan Bank Board, "to work toward meeting your demands and he has so instructed his staff." 
62."Suit Accuses 7 Drug Makers of Price-Fixing," _Los Angeles Times_, October 15, 1993, p. Dl. Other pharmaceutical houses accused of conspiring to fix prescription drug prices included Smith-Kline-Beecham, Ciba-Geigy Corp., American Home Products, Schering-Plough and Glaxo. 
63.Ida Honorof, "FDA Coverup of Hazards of Nutra-Sweet," _Report to Consumers_, Vol. XVIII, No.401, December, 1987. Also, "Two Ex-U.S. Prosecutors' Roles in Case Against Searle are Questioned in Probe," _Wall Street Journal_, February 7,1986, p. 4. Ironically, William Conlon won an appointment to the Illinois State Board of Ethics in 1982 (Kogan, p.359). 
65._Los Angeles Times_, December 22, 1988. 
66."Sam Skinner: A Pragmatist in a Storm," _Wall Street Journal_, December 6, 1991. 
67."Samuel Knox Skinner," _New York Times_, December 23, 1988. 
69."Statement from Adrian Gross, Former FDA Investigator and Scientist," _Congressional Record_, August 1, 1985, p. S10835. 
70._Congressional Record_, August 1, 1985, p. S 10831, and "Statements from Adrian Gross," p. S10838. 
71."FDA Handling of Research on NutraSweet is Defended," _New York Times_, July 18, 1987, p. 50 
72.H.J. Roberts, M.D.,*Aspartame (NutraSweet): Is it Safe?*, Charles Press (Philadelphia: 1990), p. 10. 
73._Congressional Record_, August 1, 1985, p. S108-28. 
74.Ibid., p. S108-34. 
77."Sweet Suspicions," three-part CBS Nightly News series, January 1984. Transcript reprinted in the _Congressional Record_, August 1, 1985, p. S108-26. 
79.Raymond Bonner, "Searle Stock Query Held 'Smokescreen,"' _New York Times_, February 29, 1984, p. D5 
80.William Safire, "Sweet and Sour," _New York Times_, June 1, 1984, p. A31. 
81.Louis Wolf, "Accuracy in Media Rewrites the News and History," _Covert Action Information Bulletin_, Number 21 (Spring 1984), pp. 24-37. 
82.I.N. Love, "NutraSweet Isn't that 'Sweet,"' in _Gentle Strength Times_, October 1987, p.3. 
84."Complaints on Aspartame Lead to Nationwide Investigation," _Los Angeles Times_, July 5, 1984, p. Hl. 
85."Federal Agency Sees Little Risk in Sweetener," _New York Times_, November 2, 1984, p. A22. 
86._Los Angeles Times_, July 5, 1984. 
87._New York Times_, November 2, 1984. 
88."U.S. Study of Aspartame Finds no Serious Effects," _Washington Post_, November 2, 1984, p. A18 
89."Pepsi Switches Sweeteners," _Washington Post_, November 2, 1984, p. AI. 
90."Most Scientists in Poll Doubt NutraSweet's Safety," _Washington Post_, August 17, 1987, p. A23. 
91.Roberts, p. 238. 
92._Congressional Report_, May 7, 1987, p. S5500. 
93."New Findings Back Use of Sweetener," _New York Times_, August 1987, p. 30. 
94."Researchers Differ Over Long Range Effects of Sweetener," _Los Angeles Times_, November 3, 1988, p. Hl. 
95.Roberts, p. 244. 
96.Roberts, p. 248. 
97."High Court Rejects Sweetener Review," _Washington Post_, April 23, 1986, p. C. 
98.. Roberts,p. 246-47